Friday, October 29, 2010

English 2 Unit 6: Phrasal verbs

Phrasal verbs
แปลจาก http://www.usingenglish.com/showdef.php?p=phrasal-verb.html

Phrasal verb ประกอบด้วยคำกริยาและคำบุพบท (preposition) หรือคำวิเศษณ์ (adverb) เมื่อใช้รวมกันแล้วความหมายของ phrasal verb นั้นจะแตกต่างไปจากเมื่อเป็นคำกริยาตัวเดียว เช่น 'give up' แปลว่าหยุดกระทำสิ่งใดสิ่งหนึ่ง ซึ่งความหมายต่างจาก 'give' มาก

Phrasal verbs แบ่งเป็น:
- Intransitive verbs กริยาที่ไม่ต้องการกรรม
กริยาเหล่านี้ไม่ต้องมีกรรมมาต่อท้าย
เช่น They had an argument, but they've made up now. (make up = คืนดีกัน) พวกเขาทะเลาะกัน แต่ตอนนี้คืนดีกันแล้ว

- Inseparable verbs กริยาที่ต้องการกรรม คำกริยากับบุพบทแยกกันไม่ได้
ต้องวางกรรมไว้หลังคำบุพบทเสมอ

เช่น They are looking after their grandchildren. (look after = ดูแล) พวกเขาดูแลหลานอยู่

- Separable verbs กริยาที่ต้องการกรรม คำกริยากับบุพบทแยกกันได้
วางกรรมไว้ระหว่างคำกริยากับคำบุพบท

เช่น The quality of their work sets them apart from their rivals. (set someone/something apart = ทำให้แตกต่าง) คุณภาพงานทำให้พวกเขาแตกต่างจากคู่แข่ง

กริยาที่ต้องการกรรม ซึ่งคำกริยากับบุพบทแยกกันได้นั้น บางตัวต้องวางกรรมไว้ระหว่างคำกริยากับคำบุพบทเท่านั้น แต่บางตัวก็วางกรรมไว้หลังคำบุพบทได้

แต่อย่าลืมว่า เมื่อใช้ pronoun (คำแทนคำนาม เช่น it, them) แล้ว ต้องวาง pronoun ไว้ระหว่างกริยากับบุพบทเท่านั้น (ห้ามเอาไว้หลังสุด)

Turn the TV off. (ปิดโทรทัศน์เสีย)
Turn off the TV.
Turn it off.

คำ phrasal verb ที่ใช้บ่อย Common Phrasal Verbs
แหล่งที่มา: http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/phrasal-verbs-list.htm

กลุ่มคำกิริยา phrasal verb มักจะมีสองคำ คือ กิริยา + บุพบท แต่ก็มีที่เป็นสามคำได้เหมือนกัน
Most phrasal verbs consist of two words, but a few consist of three words, which always stay together.
VerbMeaningExample
ask someone outinvite on a date ชวนออกเดทBrian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie.
ask aroundask many people the same question ถามหลายคนด้วยคำถามเดียวกันI asked around but nobody has seen my wallet.
add up to somethingequal เท่ากับYour purchases add up to $205.32.
back something upreverse ถอยYou'll have to back up your car so that I can get out.
back someone upsupport สนับสนุนMy wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.
blow upexplode (ทำให้)ระเบิดThe racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.
blow something upadd air เติมลมWe have to blow 50 balloons up for the party.
break downstop functioning (vehicle, machine) เสียOur car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.
break downget (very) upset เสียใจมากThe woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died.
break something downdivide into smaller parts ทำให้หรือแยกให้กลายเป็นส่วนที่เล็กกว่าเดิมOur teacher broke the final project down into three separate parts.
break inforce entry to a building เข้าข้างใน (บ้าน อาคาร) โดยไม่ได้รับอนุญาตSomebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.
break into somethingenter forcibly เข้าข้างใน (บ้าน อาคาร) โดยใช้กำลังThe firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children.
break something inwear something a few times so that it doesn't look/feel new ทำให้ดูไม่ใช่ของใหม่โดยการใส่I need to break these shoes in before we run next week.
break ininterrupt ขัดจังหวะThe TV station broke in to report the news of the president's death.
break upend a relationship เลิกกันMy boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.
break upstart laughing (informal) เริ่มหัวเราะThe kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking.
break outescape หนีThe prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren't looking.
break out in somethingdevelop a skin condition (ผิวหนัง) มีอาการของโรค เช่น เป็นผื่นI broke out in a rash after our camping trip.
bring someone downmake unhappy ทำให้รู้สึกแย่This sad music is bringing me down.
bring someone upraise a child เลี้ยง (เด็ก ลูก)My grandparents brought me up after my parents died.
bring something upstart talking about a subject เริ่มพูดถึงเรื่องหนึ่งๆMy mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.
bring something upvomit อาเจียรHe drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet.
call aroundphone many different places/people โทรศัพท์ไปหลายๆที่ หรือ หาคนหลายๆคนWe called around but we weren't able to find the car part we needed.
call someone backreturn a phone call โทรกลับI called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend.
call something offcancel ยกเลิกJason called the wedding off because he wasn't in love with his fiancé.
call on someoneask for an answer or opinion เรียกตอบ/ขอความเห็นThe professor called on me for question 1.
call on someonevisit someone เยี่ยมWe called on you last night but you weren't home.
call someone upphone โทรศัพท์หาGive me your phone number and I will call you up when we are in town.
calm downrelax after being angry ใจเย็นลงYou are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car.
not care for someone/somethingnot like (formal) ไม่ชอบI don't care for his behaviour.
catch upget to the same point as someone else ไปให้ทัน/เท่ากันYou'll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.
check inarrive and register at a hotel or airport ลงชื่อเข้าพักในโรงแรม/รับตั๋วขึ้นเครื่องบินWe will get the hotel keys when we check in.
check outleave a hotel ลงชื่อออกจากโรงแรมYou have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.
check someone/something outlook at carefully, investigate ตรวจสอบThe company checks out all new employees.
check out someone/somethinglook at (informal) มองดูCheck out the crazy hair on that guy!
cheer upbecome happier อารมณ์ดีขึ้นShe cheered up when she heard the good news.
cheer someone upmake happier ทำให้อารมณ์ดีขึ้นI brought you some flowers to cheer you up.
chip inhelp ช่วยเหลือIf everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.
clean something uptidy, clean ทำให้เป็นระเบียบ/ทำความสะอาดPlease clean up your bedroom before you go outside.
come across somethingfind unexpectedly พบโดยบังเอิญI came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.
come apartseparate แยกออกจากกันThe top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.
come down with somethingbecome sick ป่วยเป็นโรค...My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend.
come forwardvolunteer for a task or to give evidence อาสาสมัคร/ให้หลักฐานThe woman came forward with her husband's finger prints.
come from somewhereoriginate in มาจากThe art of origami comes from Asia.
count on someone/somethingrely on ไว้ใจ/หวังพึ่ง I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.
cross something outdraw a line through ขีดฆ่าPlease cross out your old address and write your new one.
cut back on somethingconsume less กิหรือใช้ให้น้อยลงMy doctor wants me to cut back on sweets and fatty foods.
cut something downmake something fall to the ground ตัด/โค่นWe had to cut the old tree in our yard down after the storm.
cut ininterrupt ขัดจังหวะYour father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle.
cut inpull in too closely in front of another vehicle ปาดหน้าThe bus driver got angry when that car cut in.
cut instart operating (of an engine or electrical device) เริ่มทำงานThe air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C.
cut something offremove with something sharp ตัดออกThe doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured.
cut something offstop providing เลิกให้The phone company cut off our phone because we didn't pay the bill.
cut someone offtake out of a will ตัดออกจากกองมรดกMy grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.
cut something outremove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) ตัดออกI cut this ad out of the newspaper.
do someone/something overbeat up, ransack (Br.E., informal) ซ้อม (อัดเละ)/บุกปล้นและรื้อค้นของHe's lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang.
do something overdo again (N.Amer.) ทำใหม่My teacher wants me to do my essay over because she doesn't like my topic.
do away with somethingdiscard ทิ้งIt's time to do away with all of these old tax records.
do something upfasten, close ปิด/รูดซิปหรือติดกระดุมให้มิดชิดDo your coat up before you go outside. It's snowing!
dress upwear nice clothing แต่งตัวอย่างดีIt's a fancy restaurant so we have to dress up.
drop backmove back in a position/group ร่นถอยโดยตำแหน่งAndrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike.
drop in/by/overcome without an appointment ไปหาโดยไม่ได้นัดล่วงหน้าI might drop in/by/over for tea some time this week.
drop someone/something offtake someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there นำสิ่งจองหรือคนไปส่งอีกที่หนึ่งI have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.
drop outquit a class, school etc ถอนรายวิชาI dropped out of Science because it was too difficult.
eat outeat at a restaurant กินข้าวนอกบ้านI don't feel like cooking tonight. Let's eat out.
end upeventually reach/do/decide ในที่สุดแล้วทำหรือตัดสินใจอย่างไรWe ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.
fall apartbreak into pieces แตก/เสียMy new dress fell apart in the washing machine.
fall downfall to the ground ตกThe picture that you hung up last night fell down this morning.
fall outseparate from an interior ตก/หล่นออกจากอีกสิ่งหนึ่งThe money must have fallen out of my pocket.
fall out(of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached ร่วง/หลุดHis hair started to fall out when he was only 35.
figure something outunderstand, find the answer เข้าใจ/คิดหาคำตอบได้I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room.
fill something into write information in blanks (Br.E.) กรอกPlease fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number.
fill something outto write information in blanks (N.Amer.) กรอกThe form must be filled out in capital letters.
fill something upfill to the top กรอก/ใส่จนเต็มI always fill the water jug up when it is empty.
find outdiscover ค้นพบWe don't know where he lives. How can we find out?
find something outdiscover ค้นพบเรื่อง/ว่าWe tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out.
get something across/overcommunicate, make understandable บอกให้เข้าใจ/รู้I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn't listen.
get along/onlike each other เข้ากันได้I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.
get aroundhave mobility ไปไหนมาไหนMy grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.
get awaygo on a vacation ไปเที่ยวWe worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.
get away with somethingdo without being noticed or punished ทำโดยไม่ถูกจับได้Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests.
get backreturn กลับWe got back from our vacation last week.
get something backreceive something you had before ได้รับกลับคืนLiz finally got her Science notes back from my room-mate.
get back at someoneretaliate, take revenge แก้แค้นMy sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat.
get back into somethingbecome interested in something again กลับไปสนใจI finally got back into my novel and finished it.
get on somethingstep onto a vehicle ขึ้น (+ ยานพาหนะขนาดใหญ่)We're going to freeze out here if you don't let us get on the bus.
get over somethingrecover from an illness, loss, difficulty รู้สึกดีขึ้นหรือหายจากโรคI just got over the flu and now my sister has it.
get over somethingovercome a problem แก้ปัญหาได้The company will have to close if it can't get over the new regulations.
get round to somethingfinally find time to do (N.Amer.: get around to something) ในที่สุดก็มีเวลาทำI don't know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.
get togethermeet (usually for social reasons) ไปพบกัน/ใช้เวลาด้วยกันLet's get together for a BBQ this weekend.
get upget out of bed ลุกจากที่นอนI got up early today to study for my exam.
get upstand ลุกขึ้นYou should get up and give the elderly man your seat.
give someone awayreveal hidden information about someone บอกความลับHis wife gave him away to the police.
give someone awaytake the bride to the altar พาเจ้าสาวส่งให้เจ้าบ่าวในงานแต่งงานMy father gave me away at my wedding.
give something awayruin a secret เปิดเผยความลับMy little sister gave the surprise party away by accident.
give something awaygive something to someone for free ให้ฟรีThe library was giving away old books on Friday.
give something backreturn a borrowed item ให้คืนI have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.
give inreluctantly stop fighting or arguing ยอม (อย่างไม่เต็มใจ)My boyfriend didn't want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.
give something outgive to many people (usually at no cost) แจกThey were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.
give something upquit a habit เลิกI am giving up smoking as of January 1st.
give upstop trying ยอมแพ้My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.
go after someonefollow someone ตามMy brother tried to go after the thief in his car.
go after somethingtry to achieve something พยายามทำให้ได้I went after my dream and now I am a published writer.
go against someonecompete, oppose แข่งกับWe are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight.
go aheadstart, proceed เริ่มทำPlease go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.
go backreturn to a place กลับI have to go back home and get my lunch.
go outleave home to go on a social event ไปเที่ยวWe're going out for dinner tonight.
go out with someonedate ออกเดทJesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.
go over somethingreview ทบทวนPlease go over your answers before you submit your test.
go overvisit someone nearby ไปหาI haven't seen Tina for a long time. I think I'll go over for an hour or two.
go without somethingsuffer lack or deprivation ไม่มี ขาดแคลนWhen I was young, we went without winter boots.
grow apartstop being friends over time ห่างกันไปMy best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools.
grow backregrow กลับมาโตใหม่My roses grew back this summer.
grow upbecome an adult โตขึ้นWhen Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.
grow out of somethingget too big for มีขนาดใหญ่กว่าElizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.
grow into somethinggrow big enough to fit มีขนาดใหญ่จนเท่าThis bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.
hand something downgive something used to someone else ให้ของที่ใช้แล้วI handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.
hand something insubmit ส่ง(งาน การบ้าน ฯลฯ)I have to hand in my essay by Friday.
hand something outto distribute to a group of people แจกWe will hand out the invitations at the door.
hand something overgive (usually unwillingly) ส่งให้โดยไม่เต็มใจThe police asked the man to hand over his wallet and his weapons.
hang instay positive (N.Amer., informal) อดทนHang in there. I'm sure you'll find a job very soon.
hang onwait a short time (informal) รอHang on while I grab my coat and shoes!
hang outspend time relaxing (informal) ใช้เวลาอยู่กับInstead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.
hang upend a phone call วางสายHe didn't say goodbye before he hung up.
hold someone/something backprevent from doing/going ห้าม/ป้องกันไม่ให้ทำI had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.
hold something backhide an emotion เก็บซ่อนความรู้สึกJamie held back his tears at his grandfather's funeral.
hold onwait a short time รอPlease hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.
hold onto someone/somethinghold firmly using your hands or arms จับ/เกาะแน่นHold onto your hat because it's very windy outside.
hold someone/somethinguprob ปล้นA man in a black mask held the bank up this morning.
keep on doing somethingcontinue doing ทำต่อไปKeep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.
keep something from someonenot tell ไม่บอกWe kept our relationship from our parents for two years.
keep someone/something outstop from entering ไม่ให้เข้าTry to keep the wet dog out of the living room.
keep something upcontinue at the same rate ทำเหมือนเดิม/เท่าเดิมIf you keep those results up you will get into a great college.
let someone downfail to support or help, disappoint ไม่ช่วย ทำให้ผิดหวังI need you to be on time. Don't let me down this time.
let someone inallow to enter ให้เข้าCan you let the cat in before you go to school?
look after someone/somethingtake care of ดูแลI have to look after my sick grandmother.
look down on someonethink less of, consider inferior ดูถูกEver since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.
look for someone/somethingtry to find หา I'm looking for a red dress for the wedding.
look forward to somethingbe excited about the future ตื่นเต้น ตั้งใจรอคอยให้เกิดขึ้นI'm looking forward to the Christmas break.
look into somethinginvestigate ตรวจ สำรวจWe are going to look into the price of snowboards today.
look outbe careful, vigilant, and take notice ระวังLook out! That car's going to hit you!
look out for someone/somethingbe especially vigilant for คอยระวังDon't forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail.
look something overcheck, examine เช็ค ตรวจCan you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?
look something upsearch and find information in a reference book or database หาความหมายหรือคำอธิบายWe can look her phone number up on the Internet.
look up to someonehave a lot of respect for เคารพนับถือMy little sister has always looked up to me.
make something upinvent, lie about something คิด/แต่งขึ้นเอง โกหกJosie made up a story about about why we were late.
make upforgive each other ดีกันWe were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.
make someone upapply cosmetics to แต่งหน้าให้My sisters made me up for my graduation party.
mix something upconfuse two or more things เอาสองอย่างปนกันI mixed up the twins' names again!
pass awaydie เสียชีวิตHis uncle passed away last night after a long illness.
pass outfaint สลบ เป็นลมIt was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.
pass something outgive the same thing to many people แจกจ่ายออกไปThe professor passed the textbooks out before class.
pass something updecline (usually something good) ปฏิเสธ (สิ่งที่ไม่น่าปฏิเสธ)I passed up the job because I am afraid of change.
pay someone backreturn owed money จ่ายเงินคืนThanks for buying my ticket. I'll pay you back on Friday.
pay for somethingbe punished for doing something bad ได้รับการลงโทษสำหรับสิ่งไม่ดีที่ทำไว้That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.
pick something outchoose เลือกI picked out three sweaters for you to try on.
point someone/something outindicate with your finger ชี้ให้เห็นI'll point my boyfriend out when he runs by.
put something downput what you are holding on a surface or floor วางลงYou can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter.
put someone downinsult, make someone feel stupid ทำให้รู้สึกแย่The students put the substitute teacher down because his pants were too short.
put something offpostpone เลื่อนไปWe are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.
put something outextinguish ดับThe neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived.
put something togetherassemble ประกอบI have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.
put up with someone/somethingtolerate ทนI don't think I can put up with three small children in the car.
put something onput clothing/accessories on your body สวมใส่Don't forget to put on your new earrings for the party.
run into someone/somethingmeet unexpectedly บังเอิญพบ I ran into an old school-friend at the mall.
run over someone/somethingdrive a vehicle over a person or thing ขับรถทับI accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.
run over/through somethingrehearse, review ทบทวนLet's run over/through these lines one more time before the show.
run awayleave unexpectedly, escape หนีThe child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.
run outhave none left หมดWe ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.
send something backreturn (usually by mail) ส่งกลัับMy letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.
set something uparrange, organize ตั้ง จัดOur boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.
set someone uptrick, trap หลอก The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.
shop aroundcompare prices เปรียบเทียบราคาI want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.
show offact extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) อวดHe always shows off on his skateboard
sleep overstay somewhere for the night (informal) ไปนอนค้างYou should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.
sort something outorganize, resolve a problem จัด แก้ปัญหาWe need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.
stick to somethingcontinue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing ยังคงทำสิ่งเดิม/สิ่งใดสิ่งหนึ่งไม่เปลี่ยนYou will lose weight if you stick to the diet.
switch something offstop the energy flow, turn off ปิดThe light's too bright. Could you switch it off.
switch something onstart the energy flow, turn on เปิดWe heard the news as soon as we switched on the car radio.
take after someoneresemble a family member หน้าเหมือน (คนในครอบครัว)I take after my mother. We are both impatient.
take something apartpurposely break into pieces ทำให้แตก/แยกออกจากกันHe took the car brakes apart and found the problem.
take something backreturn an item นำกลับไปคืนI have to take our new TV back because it doesn't work.
take offstart to fly (เครื่อง)บินขึ้นMy plane takes off in five minutes.
take something offremove something (usually clothing) ถอดTake off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!
take something outremove from a place or thing เอาออกCan you take the garbage out to the street for me?
take someone outpay for someone to go somewhere with you พาไปเที่ยวMy grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.
tear something uprip into pieces ฉีกเป็นชิ้นเล็กชิ้นน้อยI tore up my ex-boyfriend's letters and gave them back to him.
think backremember (often + to, sometimes + on) คิดไปถึงWhen I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.
think something overconsider พิจารณาI'll have to think this job offer over before I make my final decision.
throw something awaydispose of โยนทิ้งWe threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.
turn something downdecrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) หรี่Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.
turn something downrefuse ปฏิเสธI turned the job down because I don't want to move.
turn something offstop the energy flow, switch off ปิดYour mother wants you to turn the TV off and come for dinner.
turn something onstart the energy, switch on เปิดIt's too dark in here. Let's turn some lights on.
turn something upincrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) เร่งให้ดัง/แรงขึ้นCan you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.
turn upappear suddenly ปรากฏ โผล่มาOur cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.
try something onsample clothing ลองเสื้อผ้าI'm going to try these jeans on, but I don't think they will fit.
try something outtest ลองใช้I am going to try this new brand of detergent out.
use something upfinish the supply ใช้หมดThe kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.
wake upstop sleeping ตื่นWe have to wake up early for work on Monday.
warm someone/something upincrease the temperature อุ่นYou can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.
warm upprepare body for exercise อบอุ่นร่างกายI always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.
wear offfade away จางMost of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.
work outexercise ออกกำลังกายI work out at the gym three times a week.
work outbe successful สำเร็จOur plan worked out fine.
work something outmake a calculation คำนวนWe have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.
Br.E.: British English; N.Amer.: North American

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